The Advent of European Companies *Vasco da Gama led by a Gujarati guide named Abdul Majid arrived at Calicut, a port situated on the Indian Western Coast, on 20 May 1498. He had successfully discovered a new and all sea route to India from Europe. Zamorin, the then ruler of Calicut, welcomed Vasco da Gama. The arrival of Vasco da Gama in India started a new era of trade between Portuguese and India. Vasco da Gama made 60 times more profi t in the business of Black Pepper which was enough to lure other merchants to India. *In 1505, Francisco de Almeida arrived at India as fi rst Portuguese Governor and Viceroy. In the light of Portuguese trade interests and to establish Portuguese authority in the Indian Ocean, Almeida rendered the Blue Water Policy. *Afonso de Albuquerque came as the Governor in 1509 after Almeida. In 1510, he snatched Goa from Yusuf Adil Shah, the ruler of Bijapur, and established his authority there. He is known as the real founder of the Portuguese power in India. *Albuquerque in 1511 captured Malacca, an important South-East Asian Market and, in 1515, captured Hormuz situated at the mouth of Persian Gulf. *Nino da Cunha assumed the Governor offi ce after Albuquerque in 1529 and remained the Governor till the end of 1538. *Sea Route to India was discovered by Portuguese traveller Vasco da Gama whereas Spanish traveller Columbus discovered a route to America. Captain Cook of Britain discovered a route to Australia and Tasman of Holland discovered Van Demon’s Land (currently Tasmania) and New Zealand. *In 1503, at Cochin, fi rst Portuguese Fort (fi rst European Fort in India) was constructed by Afonso de Albuquerque (he was not Viceroy then). *Portuguese were the fi rst to establish trade relations with India during medieval times. *The sequence of Arrival of European Companies to India is : Portuguese, Dutch, English, Danes and French. *Portuguese were fi rst to arrive in 1498 and were last to leave India in 1961. *In 1961 the Portuguese Governor-General of Goa was Manuel Antonio Vassalo e Silva (1958-61). *Jose Ferreira Bossa was the Governor- General of Goa when India got Independence in 1947. *Among all European powers, Portuguese were the fi rst to establish Sea trading centres in India. *Portuguese in 1503 established their fi rst factory at Cochin whereas their second factory was established at Kannur in 1505. *In 1534, Portuguese successfully got the permission from ruler of Bengal Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah to open factories at Satgaon and Chatgaon.* Hooghly was used as a base by Portuguese for plundering activities in the Bay of Bengal. *In 1632, Mughal king Shahjahan completely destroyed all establishments of Portuguese in Hooghly and imprisoned thousand of Portuguese residents. *Job Charnock, head of the factory of Qasim Bazar, selected Sutanuti (a place in Calcutta) instead of Hooghly for English Trading Centre, this is how in 1690 he established Calcutta as a Base of Englishmen. *Dutch were fi rst to start Joint Stock Company in India.* In 1602, by a resolution passed by Dutch (Holland) Parliament a United East India Company was established. It had a Capital of 6,500,000 Guilders. This company had monopoly to do trade, to attack and win territories in India and eastern countries. Its eastern centre was situated in Batavia (currently Jakarta). Eastern Empire of Dutch was operated and administered by this company. Its partners worked as a private group. Dutch constructed Fort William at Modern Kochi in 1663 after defeating Portuguese. Kochi in 1814 was included in British settlements. *In 1599, a group named “Merchant Adventures” founded English East India Company or The Governor and Company of Merchants Trading into the East Indies in England. *In December 1600, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted East India Company the Charter for 15 years to trade with east. Akbar was the King of India then (1556-1605). *Levant Company in 1593 got Charter for land trade with India. *During the Reign of Jahangir, in 1611, East India Company established their fi rst temporary factory at Masulipatnam. In 1613, English established their fi rst permanent factory at Surat. *Dutch established their factory at Surat in 1616 followed by French in 1668. *Thomas Best was the English offi cer who defeated Portuguese at a place named Sowlley. *In 1661, King of Britain Charles II married Portuguese Princess Catherine and received Mumbai as a gift which was leased to East India Company on payment of 10 Pound annually. *English Governor of Bombay John Child, in 1688, surrounded Mughal ports in Bombay and other Mughal ports on the western coast and tried to imprison Hajj travellers going to Mecca as a result of which Aurangzeb expelled him from India.
In which year Vasco-da-Gama arrived at Calicut ?
Last 10 years UPSC question papers with answers on Advent of Europians
Who were the fi rst Europeans to come to India for trade ?|Who were the first Europeans to set up sea trade centres in India?
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Who among the following was the founder of Calcutta ?||advent of european in india upsc mcq

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Which of the following British companies got the first charter permitting them to trade in India ?

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Which one of the following European trading company was the first to establish its factory at Surat ?

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Who among the following is considered the founder of French Company in India

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During British rule which region of India was famous for the production of opium?